Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a fast growing global epidemic and its prevalence has increased in the 21st century. The rise in blood glucose levels is associated with complex pathogenesis which includes a significant reduction of the incretin effect. In patients with type 2 diabetes, glucagon like peptide-1 secretion may be impaired. In depth understanding of the role of incretin hormones in glucose homeostasis has led to the development of incretin-based therapies that target gastrointestinal hormone action of incretin and cause significant glucose-lowering effects, promote weight loss (or are weight-neutral), inhibit glucagon secretion and protect beta cells. They represent a new tool to be used as an add on therapy to older ant diabetic drugs which by themselves have not been successful in retarding the progression of the disease.

Keywords : Diabetes mellitus, incretin, glucagon like peptide-1.